International D975, Section X2. Storage and Thermal Stability of Diesel Fuels
- X2.6.1 – A plan for monitoring the quality of bulk fuel during prolonged storage is an integral part of a successful program.
- X2.6.2 – Stored fuel should be periodically sampled and its quality assessed.
- X2.7.1 – Contamination levels in fuel can be reduced by storage in tanks kept free of water, and tankage should have provisions for water draining on a scheduled basis.
- Part 112 – Oil Pollution Prevention requires the procedures for inspections and testing of above ground container tanks have been established
- Part 280 – Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks (UST) requires that USTs must be inspected every 60 days to ensure the equipment is running properly.
The Joint Commission
Sentinel Event Alert
September 06, 2006
Issue 37, September 6, 2006
Health care facilities are highly dependent on reliable sources of electrical power. Therefore, electric power is a mission-critical resource. Each health care facility must assess the risk of electrical power failure – at various degrees of magnitude and impact severity – and make plans to deal with such an emergency.
Planning and implementation of risk reduction approaches to addressing electrical power failure are the responsibility of the facility engineer, as well as organization management, the risk manager, incident command leaders, and the medical staff. By assuming access to emergency electrical power systems and implementing contingency plans for clinicians to follow during both short-term and sustained losses of power, health care organizations can reduce the risk of adverse patient care events.
20 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection
- 8.6.4 Fuel Supply Maintenance states that “tanks shall always be filled by means that will ensure removal of all water and foreign material”
25 Standards for the Inspection, Testing Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems
- Appendix B calls for a maintenance schedule to check to make sure diesel systems are free of water.
30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code (2008)
- 21.8.8 Requires tank owners to establish a procedure for checking and removing remaining water from the bottom of the storage tanks.
110 Standard for Emergency Power and Standby Power Systems (2010)
- 18.104.22.168 All fuel tanks and systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
- 22.214.171.124* Fuel system design shall provide for a supply of clean fuel to the prime mover. (Annex A.126.96.36.199 provides further explanation of 188.8.131.52 Please see attached.)
- 184.108.40.206 Tanks shall be sized so that the fuel is consumed within the storage life, or provision shall be made to replace stale fuel with clean fuel.
- 8.3.8 A fuel quality test shall be performed at least annually using tests approved by ASTM international standards.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Appendix B to ANSI N195-1976 should be used as a basis for a program to ensure the initial and continuing quality of fuel oil as supplemented by the following:
- The oil stored in the fuel-oil supply tank, and the oil to be used for filling or refilling the supply tank, should meet the requirements of Federal Fuel Oil Specification VV-F-800b (April 2, 1975); ASTM D975-77, “Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils;” or the requirements of the diesel-generator manufacturer, if they are more restrictive, as well as the fuel-oil total insolubles level specified in Appendix B to the standard. The “cloud point” should be less than or equal to the 3-hour minimum soak temperature2 or the minimum temperature at which the fuel oil will be maintained during the period of time that it will be stored. If test results for viscosity or for water and sediment for fuel oil contained in the supply tanks exceed the limits specified in the applicable specification, the diesel should be considered inoperable. Fuel oil contained in the supply tank not meeting remaining applicable specification requirements should be replaced in a short period of time (about a week).
- Prior to adding new fuel oil to the supply tanks, onsite samples of the fuel oil should be taken. As a minimum, prior to the addition of new fuel, tests for the following properties should be conducted:– Specific or API gravity
– Water and sediment
– Viscosity Test results for the latter two tests should not exceed the limits specified in the applicable specification. Analysis of the other properties of the fuel oil listed in the applicable specification should be completed within 2 weeks of the addition.
- The periodic sampling procedure for the fuel oil should be in accordance with ASTM D270-1975, “Standard Method of Sampling Petroleum and Petroleum Products.”
- Accumulated condensate should be removed from storage tanks on a quarterly basis or on a monthly basis when it is suspected or known that the groundwater table is equal to or higher than the bottom of buried storage tanks.
- Day tanks and integral tanks should be checked for water monthly, as a minimum, and after each operation of the diesel where the period of operation was 1 hour or longer. Accumulated water should be removed immediately. If it is suspected that water has entered the suction piping from the day or integral tank, the entire fuel-oil system between the day or integral tank and the injectors should be flushed.
- As a minimum, the fuel oil stored in the supply tanks should be removed, the accumulated sediment removed, and the tanks cleaned at 10-year intervals. To preclude the introduction of surfactants in the fuel system, this cleaning should be accomplished using sodium hypochlorite solutions or their equivalent rather than soap or detergents.
- If an event should occur that would require replenishment of fuel oil without the interruption of operation of the diesel generators, the method of adding fuel oil should be such as to minimize the creation of turbulence of the accumulated residual sediment in the bottom of the supply tank since stirring up this sediment during the addition of acceptable new incoming fuel has the potential of causing the overall quality of the fuel oil in the storage tank to become unacceptable.
Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure Regulation
Regulation 40 CFR 112 applies to non-transportation-related facilities with a total aboveground (i.e., not completely buried) oil storage capacity of greater than 1,320 gallons (gal), or total completely buried oil storage capacity greater than 42,000 gal.
In July 2002, final revisions to SPCC rules for 40 CFR 112 were adopted that eliminate duplicate regulation, exempt certain small facilities, exempt most wastewater treatment facilities, and require consideration of industry standards in SPCC plans.
On October 7, 2010, EPA maintained the November 10, 2010, compliance date for drilling, production or workover facilities that are offshore or that have an offshore component, and for onshore facilities required to have and submit Facility Response Plans (FRPs). However, EPA extended the compliance date an additional year for all other facilities to amend or develop a SPCC Plan until November 10, 2011.
Although each SPCC Plan is unique to the facility, there are certain elements that must be included in order for the SPCC Plan to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR112. Three areas which should be addressed in the plan are: 1) operating procedures the facility implements to prevent oil spills; 2) control measures installed to prevent oil from entering navigable waters or adjoining shorelines; and 3) countermeasures to contain, cleanup, and mitigate the effects of an oil spill that has an impact on navigable waters or adjoining shorelines. Some other important of an SPCC Plan include, but are not limited to, the following:
- Professional Engineer certification
- Plan must follow the sequence of 40 CFR 112.7 or provide cross-references to the requirements in 40 CFR112.7
- Facility diagram
- Oil Spill predictions
- Facility drainage
- Facility inspections
- Site security
- Five-year Plan review
- Management approval
- Appropriate secondary containment or diversionary structures
- Loading/unloading requirements and procedures for tank car and tank trucks
- Personnel training and oil discharge prevention briefings
- Brittle fracture evaluations
- Bulk storage container compliance
- Transfer procedures and equipment (including piping)
- SPCC Compliancy Materials and Emergency Spill Packs